Antenna and Radar Cross-Section Measurement and Processing Techniques

Module Number: CIT4430007

Duration: 1 Semester

Occurence: winter semester

Language: English

Number of ECTS: 5


Professor in charge: Dr. Knapp

Amount of work

Contact hours: 60

Self-study hours: 90

Total: 150

Description of Achievement and Assessment Methods

During a written examination, students demonstrate by answering questions under time pressure and with limited helping material (formula summary, non-programmable pocket calculator) their ability to apply and their theoretical knowledge of antenna measurement principles and post-processing methods.

It is a written exam with a duration of 90 minutes. During the semester, students get the opportunity to participate in voluntary project tasks, in which they can apply post-processing methods to realistic antenna measurement data. These project tasks can be used to improve the final grade.

The overall grade for the project task will count with 20% of the final grade, if the average grade of the written exam (80%) and of the project task grade (20%) will lead to an improvement of the grade. Otherwise, the final grade consists of the grade of the written exam (100%).

Prerequisites (recommended)

– Basic electromagnetic field theory
– Antennas and wave propagation
– Calculus

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of the module, the students know the general antenna and radar cross section measurement approaches and the required data post processing and are able to apply, evaluate, and compare the techniques for practically relevant measurement scenarios. They are able to remember, understand and apply various antenna parameters to describe and assess the performance of an antenna.

The students are able to develop implementation guidelines for antenn measurement setups and to analyze and judge the relationship between mathematical description and physical implementation of these setups. They are able to apply situation-specific post-processing techniques to transform the measured fields for diagnostics and distortion mitigation.


– Antenna parameters
– Radar cross section
– Measurement of polarization, gain, and efficiency
– Outdoor and indoor measurement ranges
– Anechoic chambers
– Compact ranges
– Reverberation chambers
– Far-field measurements
– Near-field measurements
– Field transformations: planar, spherical, and irregular geometries
– Sampling criteria
– Truncation effects
– Influence and mitigation of distortions
– Radiation hazard
– Antenna diagnostics
– Echo suppression

Teaching and Learning Methods

Teaching methods: During the lectures students are instructed in a teacher-centered style. The exercises are held in a student-centered way.

Learning methods: In addition to the individual methods of the students consolidated knowledge is aspired by repeated lessons in exercises and tutorials.


The following types of media will be used:
– Presentation slides
– Blackboard
– Printed lecture notes
– Tutorial problems with sample solutions
– Project tasks with report

Reading List

- IEEE Std 149™-2021 : IEEE Recommended Practice for Antenna Measurements
– IEEE Std 1502™-2020 : IEEE Recommended Practice for Radar Cross-Section Test Procedures
– IEEE Std 1720™-2012 : IEEE Recommended Practice for Near-Field Antenna Measurements
– IEEE Std 145™-2013 : IEEE Standard for Definitions of Terms for Antennas
– Hansen, J.E..: Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements, IEE Electromagnetic Wave Series 26, 1988
– Evans, G.E..: Antenna Measurement Techniques, Artech House, 1990
– Slater, D.: Near-Field Antenna Measurements, Artech House, 1991
– Hollis, J.S., Lyon, T.J., Clayton, L.: Microwave Antenna Measurements, Scientific-Atlanta, Inc. 1985
– Parini, C., Gregson, S., McCormick, J., van Rensburg, D.J., Eibert, T.F.: Theory and Practice of Modern Antenna Range Measurements, vol 1+2, 2nd edition,The Institution of Engineering & Technology, 2021
– Sierra Castaner, M., Foged, Lars F.: Post-processing Techniques in Antenna Measurement, The Institution of Engineering & Technology, 2019
– Knott, Eugene F.: Radar Cross Section Measurements. Springer Science & Business Media, 201