In the Open Access Journal Cell Reports Physical Science the following article was published on 2020-11-04:
„Unlocking the potential of battery storage with the dynamic stacking of multiple applications“.The authors are Stefan Englberger, Andreas Jossen, and Holger Hesse.
In the publication, an optimization framework is introduced that allows the stacking of the following applications on a single battery storage: frequency containment reserve, peak shaving, self-consumption increase, and spot-market trading. It shows that by tapping into multiple revenue streams using the dynamic stacking of applications, the profitable operation is viable under current regulatory conditions. Therefore, the framework distinguishes between behind-the-meter and in-front-of-the-meter applications and calculates how power capacity is allotted in addition to energy capacity allocation. The algorithm utilizes a rolling horizon optimization with an integrated degradation model and is fed with real-world data. When combining peak shaving with frequency containment reserve, a net present value per Euro invested of 1.00 is achieved, and 1.24 with the addition of arbitrage trading on the intraday continuous market.