The worldwide increasing demand for electrical energy, the finite nature of fossil primary resources, the risks of the climate change, and the phase out of nuclear energy require a drastic change in our electrical energy system.
The complete electrical energy system, up to now based on large centralized power plants with high power density and on a top-down structure of the power grids, has to change. A decentralized system consisting of small scaled generation plants which act as distributed systems or as a virtual power plant has to supply the demand in load centers as well as in rural areas with low demand density. In the future, the distributed generation units have to supply also grid services like frequency and voltage control, services which up to now have been provided by large thermal power plants. The optimization of such a distributed system requires besides the network infrastructure also a sophisticated communication system.
The system of electric power generation, up to now hierarchically organized from base-load to peak-load power plants based on fossil primary energy sources and following the variable load demand, will transform into a volatile system based mainly on wind and photovoltaic energy, which has to coordinate volatile generation and variable load. Storage systems for short-, medium- and long-term storage capability have to be developed and optimized concerning control and operation to cope with these new tasks. Furthermore Demand Side and Supply Side Management will help.
Due to generation from renewable resources remote from load centers, e.g. offshore wind power, new high power transmission capacities are required. For the development of underground transmission systems for highest AC- and DC-voltages fundamental questions concerning dielectric strength, long term stability of insulating materials and insulation coordination have to be answered. Besides the challenge of bulk power transmission over long distances the local reactive power demand has to be taken into consideration which today is supplied by conventional thermal power plants.
The electric transmission and distribution grids have to be restructured and extended to cope with the new load flow scenarios. We do no longer have networks of pure generation or consumption, the consumer transforms to a prosumer who produces and consumes. New applications like electric vehicles acting as passive (load) and active (storage, provision of net-services) elements will influence the system. This will change the classical distribution structure and allows for a market entrance of a huge number of generators and consumers. For this new market models have to be developed (smart market).
Communication and intelligence, which up to now are mainly installed in the transmission system to secure system stability, will also appear in the distribution system (smart grid, smart system). This requires a secure and reliable IT-infrastructure for the control of the overall power system, but also for user organization, billing, for the protection against cyber attacks and last but not least for provision of clients privacy. In this context the “Center for Energy and Information” has been founded within the Munich School of Engineering MSE.
The stability of the power system and in consequence the security and reliability of supply today is mainly based on large synchronous generators with high inertia and short circuit capacity. The new generation systems based on wind and solar radiation are connected to the grids by means of power electronic converters, which cannot contribute to the short circuit currents. New operation and control concepts and protection systems are necessary to maintain the system stability. These concepts have to be applicable for a complete converter driven power system as well for a system fed by synchronous machines in parallel with converters.
The CoC Power Systems of the Future ties experience from the different related areas of science. R&D projects with partners from science, industry and economy address the main questions of the future of supply with electrical energy.
- Integration of renewables
- Innovative network concepts and components
- Electrical Storage Systems
- Smart Grid
- Smart System
- High-power transmission systems
- High-voltage insulation systems
- Electric contacts
- System dynamic
- System stability, system control
- Power plant technology
- Low loss transmission
- Energy efficiency
- Distributed systems
- Mini- and µ-CHP
- Distributed Optimization in Power Grids
- State Estimation in Power Distribution Networks
- Communication networks for coordination, optimization and operation
- Joint planning of energy and ICT networks
- Power electronics for and control of renewable energy systems (e.g. wind turbines, PV modules)
- Demand Side Management
- Life Cycle Analysis
- Hybrid Solar Cells
- Nanostructured materials for Batteries and Supercapacitors
- BFS: Leiter und Kontaktierung zukünftiger Elektrofahrzeugbordnetze
- KME: Einsatz von Aluminium in langzeitstabilen OEM-übergreifenden Hochvoltverbindungen für Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge
- Industrie: Hochleistungsübertragungssysteme
- Industrie: Harzsysteme für Hochspannungsanwendungen
- Verband: Aufnahmefähigkeit von Verteilnetzen für verteilte Erzeugung
- VDE/VDI (Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wirtschaft): Dezentrale Überwachung und Verbesserung der Netzqualität unter Einsatz von Leistungselektronik und neuen IKT Technologien - NetzQ
- DSO: Netz der Zukunft
- Industrie: Design and Control of Energy Distribution Systems characterized by a High Degree of Decentralized and Fluctuating Generation
- TSO: Systemstabilität beim Übergang vom Schwungmassensystem zum Wechselrichtersystem
- Stiftung: Langlebiges Energiespeichersystem für erneuerbare Energiesysteme
- Bay. Staatsministerium: Stationäre Energiespeicher
- BMU: Photovoltaische Inselsysteme mit langlebigen Energiespeichersystemen auf Basis von Blei- und Lithium Ionen Batterien
- NRF Singapur: TUM-Create-Electromobility in Megacities
- IEA Implementing Agreement „Integration of Micro-Generation and related Energy Technologies in Buildings“
- IGSSE: Integration regenerativer Stromerzeugung -- Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Bestimmung der wirtschaftlich optimalen Flexibilisierung im Stromsystem