Cyber-Physical Systems

Module Number: IN2305

Duration: 1 Semester

Reccurence: Summer Semester

Language: English

Number of ECTS: 6


Professor in charge: Matthias Althoff

Amount of work

Contact hours: 75

Self-study hours: 105

Total: 150

Description of Achievement and Assessment Methods

The 90 minutes written exam consists of a part with short questions (30 min.) and a second part with mathematical modeling, calculations, and derivations (60 min.). A collection of formulas and tables required to solve the given problems is provided. Students are only allowed to bring pens and a calculator (non-progammable). The question part contains 33.3 % and the other part 66.6 % of the total points. To pass the exam, at least 50 % of the total points have to be achieved.

Intended Learning Outcomes

In many modern systems, computing elements are tightly connected with physical entities for which the term "cyber-physical systems" has been established in recent years. Examples are automated vehicles, surgical robots, smart grids, and collaborative human-robot manufacturing. After attending the course, students are able to model, analyse, and control cyber-physical systems at a level that enables them to continue deeper studies on their own. After the end of the module students are able to model cyber-physical systems and have a deep understanding of the interplay between continuous dynamics arising from physical entities (e.g. mechanical systems) and discrete dynamics originating from computing elements (e.g. discrete event control), leading to so-called hybrid dynamics. Students will be capable of designing, analysing, and controlling cyber-physical systems on a basic level. They can extract the relevant dynamical aspects of cyber-physical systems, discuss with experts on those and develop solutions on their own that meet given specifications.


Continuous dynamics: modeling, ordinary differential equations, system properties, solution of linear differential equations, simulation of differential equations, stability analysis, introduction to control of continuous systems; Discrete dynamics: modeling (Moore/Mealy machine, Petri nets, satecharts), solution traces, temporal logic, introduction to model checking, controller synthesis; Hybrid dynamics: modeling (timed automata, hybrid automata, hybrid statecharts), simulation of hybrid dynamics, stability analysis, introduction to reachability analysis, supervisory control;

Networks of cyber-physical systems; typical hardware (sensors, actuators, computing hardware)

Teaching and Learning Methods

The module consists of a lecture and exercise classes. The content of the lecture is presented via slides, which are completed during the lecture using the blackboard. Students are encouraged to additionally study the relevant literature. In the exercise classes, the learned content is applied to practical examples to consolidate the content of the lecture.


Slides, blackboard, exercise sheets

Reading List

E. A. Lee and S. A. Seshia,Introduction to Embedded Systems - A Cyber-Physical Systems Approach,, 2011.

P. Marwedel, Embedded System Design: Embedded Systems Foundations of Cyber-Physical Systems, Springer

A. J. Van Der Schaft, An Introduction to Hybrid Dynamical Systems, Springer